Let’s face it, the winter is brutal for those of us with dry skin. On top of trying to constantly keep your complexion hydrated, you also have to find a base product (in the right shade) that gives even coverage and lasts all day without flaking. It’s enough to make you want to forget about foundation entirely. But before you do that, read this advice from Derek Selby, International Director of Artistry and Education at Cover FX. beauty cosmetics

According to Selby, there’s no need to avoid foundation altogether, no matter how dry your skin or how frigid it’s outside. You just have to make sure you’re taking appropriate care of your skin prior to applying makeup. Here are tips from Selby himself to get your dry skin looking flawless, especially during the colder cosmetics

Skin care tactics
The best thing you can do for dry skin during winter? Exfoliate. For best results, Selby suggests using a scrub with tiny, natural beads that will help pull away dull, dead skin cells. Or you can use an exfoliator that contains alpha-hydroxy acid, which is known to break down the bonds that hold dried out, damaged skin cells together. Selby also recommends using a gentle cream cleanser and a moisturizer twice a day, plus a hydrating mask at night three times per week, to give the skin the extra moisture it cosmetics

Try: Korres Wild Rose + Vitamin C Advanced Brightening Sleeping Facial, Embryolisse Crème De Soin Exfoliante, Bliss Triple Oxygen + C Energizing Cream

Finding your foundation
There’s one ingredient you should avoid in foundation according to Selby: talc. “It looks dry and chalky, and absorbs moisture, so it’s not a good choice for people with dry skin,” he says, noting that an emollient formula is less harsh and will help hydrate skin while making it appear more moist and youthful. All Cover FX foundations fit the bill, and include some really powerful ingredients like antioxidants, vitamins, peptides, and ceramides (for super dry skin, Selby’s pick is the Total Cream Cover Foundation). Their formula is ideal, because it gives you treatment and foundation together—it’ll make your skin look great day-to-day because of the natural-looking coverage, and also improve your texture and tone over time. Selby puts it best, describing the foundations as “technologically advanced skin care that covers imperfections.”beauty cosmetics

Try: Cover FX Total Cover Cream Foundation

After moisturizing, see how your skin looks. If there’s still flakiness, Selby suggests applying a generous amount of primer with hyaluronic acid—which holds moisture in—like Cover FX Anti-Aging Primer. Dab some on a sponge and massage it in a circular motion over the flakes. Once you’re ready to put on foundation, use a flat brush. “A brush gives you as little friction as possible and avoids lifting dead skin cells, which can cause visible flakes,” Selby explains.

Try: Cover FX Anti-Aging Primer and Cover FX Concealer Brush

Shop the full range of Cover FX products cosmetics


5 ways to cleanse, moisturize & exfoliate your skin

5 ways to cleanse, moisturize & exfoliate your skin

A slimmer body, A younger face Wellbox : beauty without surgery
To keep your face looking as youthful as possible, you need to proper skin care. Here I show you how to properly cleanse, exfoliate and moisturize your skin while never leaving the house without at least 30 SPF sunscreen. I’ve dubbed this process “The Basic 4-Step Skincare Regimen,” which I outline in this article. I also include organic skincare tips for the growing number of you who are concerned with putting only natural, organic products on your cosmetics

How you care for your skin is utterly dependent on the type of skin you have: oily, normal/combination, dry, sensitive or sun- damaged. Find out what skin type you have.

The Basic 4-Step Skincare Regimen Step 1: Cleansing

Simple is key here. You need to find a good cleanser that your skin responds well to, and stick with it: See the best cleansers for your skin type.

You can find a good cleanser at the drugstore. There’s no need to spend $40 on a fancy wash. Avoid bar soaps as they tend to dry out the skin. For you organic types, you can cleanse skin with milk or yogurt (who knew?).

Here are some tried-and-true cleansing tips:

Be careful not to cleanse too often or you risk over-cleansing skin, see signs you are over cleansing your skin. You really only need to wash your face at night to remove makeup and sunscreen, which can clog pores.
If you have dry skin, consider cold cream like Pond’s, which the French use or make your own organic cold cream using this simple cold cream recipe. Simply apply cream, then wipe off, no water needed (if you have hard water, it can be especially harsh on skin).
To cleanse skin, most women prefer the water method: Use warm water to loosen dirt and clogged pores. Use a dime-sized bit of cleanser, then rinse with cool or lukewarm water.
Skin purists believe tap water is bad for your skin because it contains harsh minerals and additives like flouride and chlorine. If this stuff freaks you out, find out how to wash your face without tap water in How to Cleanse Your Face the Expert Way.
I personally swear by my Clarisonic Mia, as does pretty much everyone I know who has one. The machine does all the work for you.
Make sure to remove eye makeup with a proper makeup remover. The area around the eye is delicate so don’t pull or rub too hard. You can also use olive oil as a natural eye makeup remover. Find out more in Use Olive Oil as an Eye Makeup Remover.
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In the morning, a splash of lukewarm water is all you need (I find it’s great for removing excess oils from your nightly moisturizing). Never wash your face with hot or cold water (both can cause broken capillaries).

For detailed tips on cleansing, see How to Wash Your Face Properly and, for those of you who really want to do it right, check out How to Cleanse Your Face the Expert Way.

Step 2: Exfoliate

Exfoliation is the step most people skip in their weekly skincare routine. But trust me, if you start properly exfoliating your skin, you will notice an almost immediate difference. According to Berg, one of the reasons men’s skin looks more youthful than women’s is because men tend to exfoliate daily when they shave.
In my article, How to Exfoliate, I share all my tips and tricks to proper exfoliation. Including why you should throw out the loofah.

There are several exfoliating options that I use weekly. Here are my favorites:

A facial scrub. You can buy a great scrub or make your own. I prefer sugar scrubs to salt ones, but it’s just a matter of preference. See my list of the best facial scrubs or try out a recipe using brown sugar and coconut oil in Make a Face & Body Scrub With Sugar and Oil.
A washcloth. Put a dab of cleanser and a sprinkle of white refined sugar on a damp washcloth and massage skin in a circular motion. After a quick rinse, any sign of dead skin is erased. If you have dry skin, try extra virgin coconut oil.
Microdermabrasion. You can buy microdermabrasion kits. I have and found quite a few I like. See my list of the best facial scrubs and microdermabrasion kits.
Chemical peels. In the hour it takes to get a chemical peel, you can take a year from your face. Can’t afford the price tag for a monthly peel? Try some over-the-counter peels that work over the course of a month. I prefer MD Skincare’ cosmetics
Retinoids. Retinoids (such as Retin-A or the more moisturizing Renova) also work by removing the top layer of dead skin cells while also generating collagen in the skin. “Collagen is the skin’s structural fiber,” dermatologist Dennis Gross said in O Magazine. “As we get older, it breaks down, creating lines and large pores.” Skincare experts disagree on all sorts of things, but most of them consider retinoids to be a miracle skin saver. I’m addicted to Retin-A, which I pick up in Mexico on my yearly jaunts.
Should you use a toner? Some people swear by toners, but many beauty experts do not (I once read a skincare expert claim, “toners are only for copy machines”). Toners are meant to remove all remaining traces of oil, makeup and dirt, but a good cleanser should do this. I firmly believe it’s up to you. If you like the way your skin feels with a toner. Buy it. Use it. Enjoy it.
Step 3: Moisturize

While I know of at least one famous beauty editor who swore skin doesn’t need moisturizer, basically everyone else I’ve read disagrees and is an adamant believer in it. A basic rule of beauty is that if you have dry skin, you should invest in a basic moisturizer. So how much should you moisturize? Your skin will tell you. When your skin is tight, it’s crying out for moisture. Be careful not to over-moisturize — this can clog pores.
See my list of the best moisturizers on the market. For you natural girls, nothing beats a good oil for your skin. You can use extra virgin coconut oil, olive oil, sweet almond oil or jojoba oil. Learn more in Organic Extra Virgin Coconut Oil as Overall Body cosmetics

Are eye creams necessary? Well maybe. Some beauty experts strongly recommend eye creams. Why? The skin around the eye contains no fatty tissue and is therefore very thin and susceptible to wrinkles. Special eye creams are formulated to “thicken” this area. Yet other experts (including the beauty editors of Allure in their new book) claim your daily lotion works around the eyes just as well.

See my list of the best eye creams.

Step 4: Apply Sunscreen

The #1 cause of wrinkles is sun damage, so it’s important to use a sunscreen of at least 30 SPF from your early years on even in winter and on cloudy days. A great trick is to purchase two moisturizers: One for night and one for day that includes UV protection. Don’t use moisturizers with sunscreen at night, the ingredients are not meant to be used 27/7 and can aggravate skin. When choosing a sunscreen, make sure it contains Mexoryl (found in my favorite sunscreen La-Roche Posay) or Helioplex, found in Neutrogena products.
See my list of top sunscreens

Dos and Don’ts of Scar Prevention

No matter how careful we are, accidents happen. Whether it’s a toddler bumping his head on the sharp corner of a coffee table or an adult slipping up with a kitchen knife while slicing vegetables, injuries — and often lingering scars — abound. Though total scar prevention may be impossible after a cut, there are things you can do to lessen the severity of any lasting marks.

Scar Treatment: The 411 About Scars

The first thing to know is that scar formation is a totally normal part of the healing process. “When the skin is injured, collagen production goes into overdrive to fix the wound as fast as possible,” says Jessica Krant, MD, MPH, assistant clinical professor of dermatology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center and founder of the Art of Dermatology LLC in New York City. “This healing tissue doesn’t contain all of the normal parts of skin, so it looks different.”beauty cosmetics

The appearance of any given scar depends on a number of factors. The shape, size, and depth of the wound contribute to the way a scar looks, as do the amount of blood that can get to the area, your skin color, and your skin thickness.

There are three main types of scars. Normal scars are relatively thin, small, and flat. Hypertrophic scars are red, thick, and raised. Keloid scars are also raised, often dark or red, and, unlike hypertrophic scars, expand beyond the contours of the actual wound. Keloid scars tend to be genetic and can be hard to control or predict, says Dr. Krant. They come from an overproduction of collagen and can be treated by injecting steroid medication into the affected area . Consultation with a medical professional is the best route when dealing with a keloid cosmetics

Scar Prevention: Dos and Don’ts

There are steps you can take — and mistakes to avoid — to help heal skin with as little residual scarring as possible. “The key to lessening scarring is to decrease the amount of work the body has to do to heal the scar,” Krant says. Here’s how:

Get stitches if needed. Cuts that are spread apart or are deep often heal better when they are stitched by a medical professional. Keep in mind that stitches must be sewn as soon as possible, while the injury is fresh. If too much time elapses, the wound may become contaminated with germs or bacteria, and a doctor may not want to stitch it closed because of the threat of infection. Also, the wound may start to partially heal, which can hinder successful suturing. If in doubt about whether stitches are in order, see a doctor in a timely manner and let him decide the best treatment for the cosmetics
Keep the wound moist. Apply petroleum jelly to the wound and cover it with a non-stick bandage. This can speed healing and minimize scarring, says Krant.
Don’t fall for the false advertising of scar creams. You might have heard that vitamin E can help reduce scarring, but this has not been proven in a high-quality study (a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial). In fact, no over-the-counter product claiming to prevent scars has been scientifically shown to significantly improve scarring.
Massage the wound. On the other hand, “massaging the scar daily with vitamin E may help promote a less visible scar,” says Krant.
Avoid the sun. Keeping the scar away from sunlight can help minimize discoloration.
Let it heal naturally. Don’t use hydrogen peroxide too frequently as it can cause continual irritation and slow the healing process. And don’t pick at scabs. “Scabs are nature’s biologic dressing,” Krant says. “Picking off a scab repeatedly when a wound is trying to heal will slow healing and increase scarring. ”
Be patient. Healing takes time — possibly a long time. The first phase of healing takes three months, followed by a second phase that lasts another three months. At one year after the injury, the scar has basically formed, but even then it will still change and appear different a year after that. “The truth is, scars never stop changing and improving unless they are keloid scars, which continually worsen unless treated by a physician,” Krant says beauty cosmetics

5 Best Vitamins For Beautiful Skin

Nourish your skin
You’re diligent about fruits, veggies, and multis, but your skin care routine is still missing vitamins.

Research shows that certain nutrients are essential for preventing and reversing many signs of skin aging. A well-balanced diet is important, of course—eating a variety of healthy foods helps keep skin supple and glowing. But the fact is, “the body delivers only a certain percentage of vitamins to your skin, no matter how much you ingest,” says Mary Lupo, MD, clinical professor of dermatology at Tulane University School of Medicine. Plus, there’s no way to send them straight to your crow’s feet or brown spots.

The solution: Applying vitamins topically to deliver maximum anti-aging benefits—everything from improving texture and tone to fading under-eye circles. Follow this user’s guide to the letter, and soon your skin will look better than cosmetics

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1. Vitamin A for wrinkles
Best overall age-fighter

Find it in: OTC lotions, night creams (vitamin A derivatives are known as retinoids), and prescription products

Proven to: Reduce wrinkles, fade brown spots, and smooth roughness. “There are more than 700 published studies on retinoids—they’re tried-and-true ingredients. Anyone who wants younger-looking skin should use one,” says Doris Day, MD, assistant clinical professor of dermatology at New York University Langone Medical cosmetics

How to use: Apply your retinoid at night—sunlight inactivates most forms of vitamin A. Prescription retinoids work fastest, within four to eight weeks. The downside: They’re irritating, causing redness, scaling, and flaking that can last for weeks or longer. OTC products are best for beginners; you’ll experience fewer skin care side effects because the retinol they contain is slowly converted to retinoic acid, the active ingredient in prescription creams. To avoid irritation, apply an OTC or prescription retinoid every second or third night, at least for the first two weeks, and build up to nightly use. Apply sparingly; a pea-size amount is enough to cover your entire cosmetics

Try Dr. Brandt Glow Overnight Resurfacing Serum ($85; or RoC Multi-Correxion Night Treatment ($22.50; If your skin is sensitive, two new retinoids are particularly gentle. Clinical studies show that retinyl propionate, available in Olay Professional Pro-X Deep Wrinkle Treatment Anti-Aging ($15.50;, significantly improves skin after 12 weeks without being as drying as the more potent retinol. Ready to trade up to an Rx retinoid? Ask about Atralin (about $150), which contains two potent anti-aging emollients. “Even my most sensitive patients are able to tolerate it,” says Dr. cosmetics
2. Vitamin B3 for redness
Boosts hydration to reduce redness

Find it in: Lotions, creams, and serums. It’s often called niacinamide on the label.

Proven to: Increase production of ceramides and fatty acids, two key components of your skin’s outer protective barrier. “As that barrier is strengthened, skin is better able to keep moisture in and irritants out—making B3 a great ingredient if your complexion is dry or sensitive,” says Leslie S. Baumann, MD, director of the University of Miami Cosmetic Medicine and Research Institute. In one study, a moisturizer with niacinamide improved the flushing and blushing of rosacea, a common condition that can worsen with age. Another B3 skin care benefit: It inhibits the transfer of pigment to skin cells, minimizing dark cosmetics

How to use: For maximum results, apply B3 vitamins in the morning and evening. To reduce irritation from your retinoid, use it in conjunction with niacinamide. “Mix them together in the palm of your hand before applying—they won’t inactivate each other,” says Baumann. Besides decreasing side effects, the combo produces superior anti-aging benefits.

Try La Roche-Posay Rosaliac Skin Perfecting Anti-Redness Moisturizer ($30; or Olay Regenerist Micro-Sculpting Cream ($20;
3. Vitamin C for spots
All-around anti-ager

Find it in: Moisturizers formulated to keep vitamin C stable (opaque, airtight containers are ideal). Look for C near the middle of the ingredients panel to help ensure the 5% or higher concentration needed to see skin care benefits, advises Hema Sundaram, MD, a dermatologist in the Washington, DC, cosmetics

Proven to: Mop up the free radicals that trigger wrinkling, sagging, and other aging changes. Vitamin C also helps smooth and firm skin and fade brown spots. In one study, women who treated sun-damaged skin with a C cream for six months saw significant improvement in fine lines and discoloration. Though the benefits of retinoids (see vitamin A) and vitamin C sound similar, using both delivers more complexion perfection. “Skin aging occurs in various ways, so you need multiple forms of defense and repair,” says Dr. Lupo.

How to use: Apply vitamin C in the morning before sunscreen to shield your skin from any UV-generated free radicals that get by your sunblock. 

Try SkinMedica Vitamin C+E Complex ($54; or Avalon Organics Vitamin C Renewal Facial Cream ($16; These products contain ascorbic acid or magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (the skin-friendliest forms of C) in combination with vitamin E (it’s listed as alpha-tocopherol or tocopherol acetate). This duo provides 4 times more protection against free radicals when applied cosmetics
4. Vitamin E for moisture
Eases dryness and bolsters skin’s UV defense

Find it in: Sunscreens and after-sun products. The best anti-aging products contain at least 1% vitamin E, so it will be listed near the middle of the ingredients panel.

Proven to: Quell dryness by helping skin retain its natural moisturizers. Also, vitamin E’s potent ability to neutralize damaging free radicals has earned it the moniker “the protector.” A slew of skin care studies document its superstar status. In one, E significantly reduced the number of these unstable molecules created after exposure to cigarette smoke. Others show that when it’s used before UV exposure, skin is less red, swollen, and dry.

How to use: Apply before and after serious sun exposure. A single strong blast of UV light can destroy half the skin’s natural supply of E, so shore up defenses by slathering on a sunscreen supplemented with E and C before going into the sun—the C helps ensure effectiveness. An after-sun salve with E helps, too, says Oceanside, CA, dermatologist Jens Thiele, MD, PhD, a vitamin E expert. Some studies show that the anti-inflammatory action kicks in to reduce damage even after you’ve been in the sun.

Try L’Oreal Paris Sublime Sun Face Lotion SPF 50+ ($9;, MD Moms Babysafe Sunscreen Towelettes SPF 30 ($26;, Clinique After-Sun Rescue Balm with Aloe ($26;, or Hawaiian Tropic Silk Hydration After Sun Lotion ($7;
5. Vitamin K for dark circles
For younger, brighter eyes

Find it in: Eye creams that also contain retinol.

Proven to: Possibly help lighten under-eye circles. Fragile capillaries that allow blood to leak into skin are considered one cause of under-eye circles, and vitamin K (aka phytonadione) may put the skids on this seepage by controlling blood clotting. Daily use of a K cream significantly lightened circles after 4 months in one study, but because the cream also contained retinol, researchers aren’t sure which ingredient deserves credit for the improvement—retinol alone thickens the translucent under-eye skin (making it harder to see the dark blood vessels below) and lightens melanin that makes circles more prominent. Still, it can’t hurt to try a cream that contains vitamin K and retinol; according to Dr. Baumann, the retinol may enhance K’s ability to penetrate skin and knock out darkness.

How to use: Apply nightly. First allow skin to become acclimated to the retinol—use once or twice the first week, and add a night every week after.

Try NeoStrata Bionic Eye Cream ($62;, Quintessence Skin Science Clarifying Under-Eye Serum Capsules ($67;, or Peter Thomas Roth Power K Eye Rescue Dark Circle Eye Treatments ($32;

More from Prevention: Your Winter Skin Survival Guide

What’s My Skin Type?

Do you have oily skin, dry skin… a combo? Understanding the difference will help you know how to care for your complexion.

Skin is generally classified into one of four categories: normal, oily, dry, and combination, says Susan Van Dyke, MD, a dermatologist with Van Dyke Laser and Skin Care in Paradise Valley, Ariz. However, your skin type can change as you age, and other factors like genetics and even illness can play a part. “It’s multi-factorial,” Dr. Van Dyke cosmetics

Normal skin, which has a good balance of moisture, small pores and an even tone, is the goal of most skin care regimens. Most people have normal skin, Van Dyke says, but to maintain its good condition, it’s important to minimize its exposure to the sun. A facial sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 is ideal for preventing wrinkles and other sun damage.

“Put it by your toothpaste and use it,” Van Dyke says. “It doesn’t matter if it is snowing or raining — get in that habit so you always have it on. Incidental sun exposure is what gets you.”

Skin Care: Quieting Oily Skin

Oily skin is identified by an excess of oil (the technical term is sebum) on the face. Some people with oily skin begin to feel greasy only a few hours after washing. “A very oily person would feel the need to wash their face between noon and 5 p.m., because oil has built up during the day,” Van Dyke says. Oily skin can be an inherited trait, but it can also be caused by puberty, which causes oil glands to go into overdrive. You may also notice more oil on your “T-zone” because of all the oil glands in the forehead, nose, and cosmetics

People with oily skin generally don’t need a regular moisturizer, but sunscreen is still necessary to reduce exposure to UV rays. Choose an oil-free sunscreen, suggests Van Dyke says, one that’s specifically formulated for the face and are less likely to create blackheads and clog pores. “There are plenty of oil-free sunscreens available,” Van Dyke says. “Go to the drugstore, read labels, and try samples of different ones. There’s no excuse not to use sunscreen anymore.”beauty cosmetics

Skin Care: Soothing Dry Skin

Dry skin, on the other hand, suffers from a lack of natural moisture — there’s little oil to act as a surface barrier and lock in moisture. People with dry skin feel a tightness about their face, and their skin is often irritated. Flaking is another symptom, but it’s not always a sure sign of dry skin. “You can have flaky skin and not be dry,” Van Dyke says. Sometimes, severely dry skin can become itchy and painful, leading to a condition called eczema.

Treatment of certain medical conditions can sometimes lead to dry skin. For example, breast cancer treatment may stop hormone production which could in turn affect the quality of your skin. “This will throw people into a menopausal situation at an early age,” Van Dyke says. “Suddenly, there’s no oil production.” Naturally-occurring menopause can have the same effect; most women begin to experience drier skin as they hit their late forties. To care for dry skin, use a gentle, soap-free cleanser, and moisturize adequately. A second application of moisturizer may be needed during the day, Van Dyke cosmetics

Skin Care: Balancing Combination Skin

Combination skin is a blend of both oily and dry skin. People with combination skin usually find that their oily skin is concentrated in the T-zone, while their cheeks remain dry. Combination skin can be influenced by genetics and, again, by puberty, when oil glands increase their production of sebum. Sometimes a variety of products are needed to treat combination skin. “You may have to treat different parts of the face slightly differently,” Van Dyke says. For example, a mild cleanser and moisturizer may be needed on the cheeks, while an anti-acne product with benzoyl peroxide might be necessary on the T-zone.

If you’re still not sure about your skin type or the best way to nourish it, consult a dermatologist who can recommend an over-the-counter skin care regimen or offer you a physician’s line of products. Look for a doctor who is board-certified by the American Academy of Dermatology. “Your dermatologist is absolutely your best skin-care expert,” Van Dyke says.

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Postoperative care

The patient is discharged the same day, usually without any bandage. Some surgeons still prefer to bandage but it must be done very carefully to avoid shearing. The bandage must also be removed very meticulously because grafts can stick to the undersurface and get removed replacement solution

Some swelling is obvious after a hair transplantation surgery and the patient should be informed of this prior to the procedure. Oral steroids for 3–5 days can minimize the oedema. Some surgeons use Injection Triamcinolone 40 mg in the tumescent solution and claim that this reduces the swelling. A head-band worn immediately after the operation is useful in preventing the swelling from coming down on to the face and creating a puffy appearance. The patient is instructed to wash his hair with a mild shampoo on the 2nd or 3rd postoperative day. While combing the hair in the transplanted area for three weeks, the tooth of the comb should not strike against the transplanted grafts. Wearing clothes like T-shirts or pullovers which have to be taken off over the head should also be avoided for three weeks. Hair oils or other stronger shampoos as well as helmets are also to be avoided for the same period. In men, 5% minoxidil lotion is applied in the areas of the hair transplant once the shampooing has begun while 2% minoxidil lotion is used in females. This is continued for a period of two to six months. This has been shown to promote earlier growth of the transplanted replacement solution


The epidermis and dermis along with the shaft of the transplanted hair outside the skin fall off as scabs in the two to three weeks after the surgery, but the follicles remain and go into a resting phase. New hairs start growing about three months after the procedure. It has often been noticed that with the use of 5% minoxidil, the hairs do not fall and start growing immediately in the postoperative period. It usually takes six to nine months to appreciate the result of a hair transplant. If a second procedure has been planned, it must be at least three to six months after the first sitting. Some patients may complain of hypoaesthesia of the scalp in the donor area. It is usually temporary, but may persist for as long as 18 months in some cases.

The density of transplanted hair is thinner especially in areas that are totally bald. The patient should be informed of this preoperatively and a second sitting can be undertaken to increase hair replacement solution


Complications of hair transplantation are few and rare. True infections in the recipient areas occur infrequently. In the donor areas, infection may be seen around the sutures but it usually resolves easily after suture removal. Epidermal cysts may be seen occasionally and need drainage. It is important not to harvest too big a donor area because tension on the suture line can lead to dehiscence and a wide replacement solution

Is obesity linked to infertility in females?

Obesity is one of the major causes of infertility in women. Recent studies show that obesity has a direct relationship with the infertility problems in ovulating women. Obesity also has a major impact on the women who ovulate in a normal way.
The severely obese women are almost 43% less able to conceive or go on with the pregnancy than the normal weight or moderate obese women. Obesity is an additional factor that is among the causes of infertility in women who have normal menstrual cycles.

According to the statistics there are many couples who try to conceive and spend more than an year on their efforts but still not able to conceive although they have no apparent problems regarding fertility. Women are ovulating and their fallopian tubes are working. Men also have no problem and have normal semen analysis. But the causes of infertility might be obesity.

Complex role of obesity regarding causes of infertility

Obesity is a major risk factor for infertility in women but the aspect is still ambiguous how obesity affects the fertility powers of women who have no ovulation problems. Some doctors say that the disruption in the hormone lepton can be a hurdle in a successful conception. Endocrinologists believe that the role of obesity in fertilizing powers is very complex.
Doctors believed that is the obesity is not affecting a woman’s ovulation system then it has nothing to do with the infertility but this is no more a true fact. Now doctors have confirmed that the obese women need higher dosages of medicines for the treatment of infertility as compared to normal weighted women.

During pregnancy, obesity could become a cause of various maternal and paternal risks. As the obesity increases these risks also increases. It is still ambiguous that whether obesity directly causes adverse pregnancy outcomes or not. Adverse outcomes of a pregnancy are usually associated with the physical ailments like diabetics in especially obese women. The risk of infertility or complicated pregnancy rises as the obesity rises in women. Causes of infertility are very large in number but obesity is a major factor behind the infertility in women and also in men.




You’re Not Alone
Sixty percent of women are dealing with some degree of hair loss … or have in the past … or will in the future.

The Good Bets

The topical solution 
Minoxidil (brand name Rogaine), the only FDA-approved medication for female hair loss, is available over-the-counter in 2 and 5 percent formulas. (Only the lower dose is approved for women.) Massage it into your scalp twice a day; you should notice regrowth in six months. Results last only as long as you use the medicine. ($50 for a three-month supply)hair replacement solution

The prescription drug 
Spironolactone (brand name Aldactone) and finasteride (brand names Propecia and Proscar) are antiandrogen medications that can be prescribed off-label to postmenopausal women. (The drugs can cause birth defects, so they’re not given to women of childbearing age.) Some 50 percent of women with female pattern hair loss will likely see regrowth. (Up to $90 for a one-month supply)hair replacement solution

The permanent route 
With a hair transplant, hair is removed from one part of the scalp and then implanted where you’re thinning. Tiny “follicular units” of two to four hairs are transplanted; this can be effective even for women with diffuse thinning and few areas of “donor hair.” In a survey of hair transplant surgeons led by dermatologist Walter Unger, MD, over half said that at least 40 percent of women with female pattern hair loss are candidates for surgery; many of those doctors believe that up to 80 percent of women with thinning hair can see successful results. ($3,000 to $15,000, depending on number of grafts and transplant sessions)

Instant and Cheap Gratification

Fullmore ($22) is a tinted spray that temporarily thickens hair with tiny fibers and conceals visible scalp. Hair restoration specialist Lucinda Ellery tells clients to try it before committing to extensions; for many it’s the only fix they need.

Pantene AgeDefy Advanced Thickening Treatment ($20) is a styling spray that plumps each hair fiber. In a study published in the British Journal of Dermatology in 2011, it increased the diameter of individual hairs significantly, by about 10 replacement solution

The Future Looks Bright (and Very Full)
Not satisfied with existing hair loss solutions? Sit tight…

Some doctors are already using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to stimulate hair growth, and there are many studies under way on the best methods to harness the technology. When separated from a patient’s own blood, platelets release growth factors, which are then injected into the scalp to stimulate the hair shafts. “So far we’re seeing decreased hair loss after one or two treatments, and some degree of new growth after three to five,” says New York City dermatologist Neil Sadick, MD.

Bimatoprost, the synthetic prostaglandin in the prescription lash-growth serum Latisse, is in clinical trials for FDA approval as a topical scalp hair loss treatment. It could be available in the next few replacement solution

Many researchers are investigating hair cloning. “I am hopeful that by 2025, we will be able to multiply hair from a small biopsy to produce unlimited follicles for transplantation,” says hair restoration surgeon Alan Bauman, MD.




Graft preparation

The harvested donor strips are immediately immersed in chilled normal saline. This is achieved by keeping the tray containing the grafts, immersed in saline on ice. Proper hydration of the donor grafts with cold saline is very important throughout the surgery as it influences the survival rate of the grafts. If a single large strip has been harvested, it can be divided into smaller pieces or slivers[6] before the cutting of individual grafts. The subcutaneous fatty tissue below the hair roots or bulbs is stripped leaving up to 2 mm of fat below the hair bulb. FUGs are made having one to four hairs. Grafts are immersed in saline in a Petridish, or kept on a moist stockinet in kidney trays, in bunches of 25. Good illumination is essential during the cutting of the grafts. The grafts may be cut on wooden tongue depressors or on a clear vinyl dissecting surface with a backlighting system. It is important that no piece of wood sticks to the grafts after they have been cut, because these foreign bodies can later form troublesome epidermal cysts. Loupe magnification of 2X or 3X power is useful in creating FUGs. Graft preparation with a dissecting stereo microscope makes the dissection a little slower, but it is much more accurate. Some surgeons prefer slicing the epidermis in the grafts at an angle of 45° to avoid scab visibility in the postoperative period, but this takes more time and is not preferred by the replacement solution

Preparation of the recipient area

Anaesthesia for the recipient area includes a supratrochlear and supraorbital nerve block,hair replacement solution followed by a ring block in the frontal area beyond the zone of hair transplantation. The recipient area itself should be tumesced well with normal saline. It is the author’s preference to avoid using adrenaline in the recipient area because it increases telogen effluvium in the immediate postoperative period, and it also may diminish the uptake of the grafts. Adrenaline must definitely be avoided in the recipient area in women[7] because severe effluvium has been reported after its use. To minimize bleeding and pain, the recipient area should be turgid before slits or holes are made.

While making slits or holes in the recipient area, it is very important to follow the direction of the existing hair in that region. The hairline should have a ragged, saw-toothed natural look. Holes are made with a No. 18 / 20/ 23 gauge needle in a pattern of organized disorganization. About 250–300 micrografts are necessary to create a normal hairline. Behind the hairline, slits can be made by Nokor® needles, a Minde® knife (A – Zee Surgical, USA), a No. 11 scalpel blade or by needles. The author has devised a new instrument which is being patented as “Kolkata slit”. The Nokor needles and Minde knife are disposable instruments and not easily procurable in India. The scalpel blades make holes that are too large and often deep, because of which the inserted grafts float and lose direction. Scalpel blades can also cause significant damage to the existing hair in the recipient area. In females, a large number of hair strands get cut by the scalpel blade during the procedure. The ‘Kolkata slit’ is an instrument which can be re-used and comes in different sizes. It creates a gap just about the size of the graft to be inserted, and ensures that the graft maintains the direction of orientation. The slit may be used in attempts to increase density in areas where there are existing replacement solution

In patients undergoing secondary or tertiary procedures, an increased amount of bleeding has been noticed in the recipient area. Increased bleeding is also seen in patients who have been using minoxidil lotion in the preoperative period. Good tumescence and a waiting period of 10–15 minutes before making gaps can reduce this disturbing ooze. It is also noticed that the gaps in recipient areas are tougher to make in secondary procedures, because of fibrosis from earlier replacement solution

Graft insertion

The grafts are placed into the recipient slits / holes using fine-angled forceps. It is important to employ an atraumatic technique for graft placement. To avoid damage, the FUGs are grasped by the 2 mm of subcutaneous tissue left below the hair bulbs to position them into the recipient sites and not by the follicle end. A steady pressure is applied to ensure that the grafts are flush with the surrounding skin. Burying the grafts beneath the level of the skin must be avoided because it can give a pitted appearance and also lead to the formation of epidermal cysts. A cobblestone appearance is seen if the grafts are too elevated from the surface. Two, or even three, persons can insert grafts at the same time to make the procedure faster and efficient. Grafting sessions can last up to five or six hours, in which 2000–3000 FUGs may be replacement solution

Hair transplant


A hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness.


During a hair transplant, hairs are moved from an area of thick growth to bald areas.

Most hair transplants are done in a doctor’s office. The procedure is performed as follows:

  • You receive local anesthesia to numb the scalp. You may also receive medicine to relax you. 
  • Your scalp is thoroughly cleaned.
  • A strip of your hairy scalp is removed using a scalpel (surgical knife) and set aside. This area of your scalp is called the donor area. The scalp is closed using tiny stitches.
  • Small groups of hairs, or individual hairs, are carefully separated out from the removed scalp.
  • The bald areas that will receive these healthy hairs are cleaned. These areas of your scalp are called the recipient replacement solution
  • Tiny cuts are made in the bald area.
  • Healthy hairs are carefully placed in the cuts. During a single treatment session, hundreds or even thousands of hairs may be transplanted.

Why the Procedure is Performed

Hair transplantation can improve the appearance and self-confidence in patients who are balding. This procedure cannot create new hair. It can only move the hair you already have to the areas that are bald.

Most persons who have a hair transplant have male or . Hair loss is on the front or top of the scalp. You must still have thick hair on the back or sides of the scalp to have enough hair follicles to move.

In some cases, patients with hair loss from , injuries, or other medical problems are treated with a hair replacement solution


Risks of any surgical procedure include:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection

Other risks that can occur with this procedure:

  • Scarring
  • Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth

It is possible that the transplanted hair will not look as good as you had desired.

Hair transplant patients should be healthy, or surgery is less likely to be safe and successful. Discuss your risks and options with your doctor before undergoing this replacement solution

After the Procedure

Follow the doctor’s instructions about caring for your scalp and any other self-care measures. This is especially important to ensure healing.

For a day or two after the procedure, you may have a large surgical dressing or a smaller dressing protected by a baseball replacement solution

During the recovery period after surgery, your scalp may be very tender. You may need to take pain medicines.

You may also need to take antibiotics or anti-inflammatory medicines after replacement solution